Climatic Impacts of Submarine Volcanic Eruption El Hierro

Climatic impacts of the October 2011 to March 2012 El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption El Hierro

By Professor Wyss Yim. First published in Imperial ENGINEER, Autumn 2013

Ocean has three main climatic impacts. First, the hot and low density seawater immediately beneath the surface speeded up the tropical Atlantic currents, rushing the tropical waters northwards. Second, the hot seawater warmed the atmosphere above causing a fall in air pressure to generate depressions. Th ird, the polar jet stream was drawn further south than normal in the North Atlantic Ocean. Consequently both the ‘normal’ oceanic circulation and atmospheric circulation were drastically altered. Th e combination eff ect is an extremely negative NAO including the development of a ‘Greenland block’.

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Under Sea Volcanoes – The Axial Seamount

By Jim Le Maistre

300 kilometers off the coast of Oregon there is an undersea volcano, The Axial Seamount. It erupted in 1982, 1998, 2011 and 2015. New Scientist July 9 th , 2007 suggests that there are roughly 3 million volcanoes under the oceans of the world, this one is the only under sea volcano ever, regularly, studied. It is estimated that about 80 % of all volcanic activity on Earth occurs under the oceans. Almost nothing is known about these volcanoes. Scientists do not even have a scale by which to measure volcanoes that erupt under the sea. No system has ever been developed to describe or rate their magnitude like the systems rating Volcanoes above land.

Environment Canada – August 2015 . . . arrow pointing to ’Axial Seamount’- by author

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2021-2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption and Record Rainfall in Eastern Australia and New Zealand

By Alvin Wong and Wyss Yim. Volcanoes Study Group, Hong Kong.


During late 2021, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai submarine volcano erupted creating a new island which erupted sub-aerially on 15th January, 2022 sending a plume 58 km above sea level penetrating the mesosphere. The study of observation records including satellite data has revealed warming of the ocean-surface layer followed by atmospheric cooling caused by the release of geothermal heat and volcanic materials entering the atmosphere respectively. Environmental factors influencing weather include the development of a relatively ‘short’ life-span South Pacific Blob; the transfer of large quantities of water vapour from the ocean into the atmosphere; the low-pressure condition on the ocean surface; the formation of clouds; the reduction of solar radiation caused by volcanic materials in the atmosphere; the strengthening of trade winds; the meandering of jet streams; the development of atmospheric rivers, the additional cooling effect of torrential rainfall, and, the switch to La Niña conditions. The record rainfall in eastern Australia and New Zealand and Tropical Cyclone Dovi occurring in February 2022 were both outcomes of atmospheric cooling following the sub-aerial eruption. Continue reading “2021-2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption and Record Rainfall in Eastern Australia and New Zealand”


By Dr. John Happs

Climate alarmists have attempted to dismiss the role of volcanism as a major source of global carbon dioxide whilst arguing that anthropogenic carbon dioxide is the main source and key driver of global climate change.

Volcanism, as the possible prime source of global carbon dioxide should be given closer attention since increasing numbers of research papers are highlighting the important contribution that volcanoes make in providing this life-giving gas. Continue reading “VOLCANOES AS CARBON DIOXIDE SOURCES”